Flavia Braghiroli, Nesrine Hamza, Hassine Bouafif, C.M. Neculita, Ahmed Koubaa. Production, characterization, and potential of activated biochar as adsorbent for phenolic compounds from leachates in a lumber industry site. 2018. Environnemental Research 25(26):26562-26575
DOI : 10.1007/s11356-018-2712-9
There is growing interest in low-cost, efficient materials for the removal of organic contaminants in municipal and industrial effluents. In this study, the efficiency of biochar and activated biochar, as promising adsorbents for phenol removal, was investigated at high (up to 1500 mg L?1) and low concentrations (0.54 mg L?1) in synthetic and real effluents (from wood-residue deposits in Québec), respectively. The performance of both materials was then evaluated in batch adsorption experiments, which were conducted using a low solid/liquid ratio (0.1 g:100 mL) at different phenol concentrations (C0?=?5–1500 mg L?1), and at 20 °C. Activated biochars presented higher phenol adsorption capacity compared to biochars due to their improved textural properties, higher micropore volume, and proportion of oxygenated carbonyl groups connected to their surface. The sorption equilibrium was reached within less than 4 h for all of materials, while the Langmuir model best described their sorption process. The maximum sorption capacity of activated biochars for phenol was found to be twofold relative to biochars (303 vs. 159 mg g?1). Results also showed that activated biochars were more effective than biochars in removing low phenol concentrations in real effluents. In addition, 95% of phenol removal was attained within 96 h (although 85% was removed after 4 h), thus reaching below the maximum authorized concentration allowed by Québec’s discharge criteria (0.05 mg L?1). These results show that activated biochars made from wood residues are promising potential adsorbent materials for the efficient treatment of phenol in synthetic and real effluents.
Mourad Saddem, Hassine Bouafif, Sébastien Migneault, Bernard Riedl, Ahmed Koubaa. Effect of fiber and polymer variability on the rheological properties of wood polymer composites during processing. 2018. Polymers Composites 40(S1):E609-E616
DOI : 10.1002/pc.24909
We investigated the effects of fiber variability, size and content on the fusion characteristics of wood particle-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Five types of wood sawdust were used: eastern white cedar, with sapwood, and heartwood treated separately; jack pine divided into wood and bark; and black spruce. Three different fiber length classes were also used. Composite pellets containing wood particles at 25, 35, and 45% by weight with HDPE were made using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The pellets were melted and mixed during 7 min in a torque rheometer at 180°C. We also investigated the polymer variation using HDPE, polypropylen (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and a blend of (80% HDPE+ 20% PP) where wood fiber proportion and length were kept constant. We varied the mixing temperature to reach the melting temperature range of each polymer. Mixing and melting times, maximum torque and stabilized torque were obtained. Adding wood fibers to the HDPE increased processing time and torque energy. At constant fiber length and proportion, torque properties varied with fiber origin. Higher fiber length and proportion increased torque energy and time of stabilization. Thus, using wood fibers with different properties will lead to significant variations in processing, such as in extrusion or injection. The fusion characteristics of wood polymer composite vary among polymers. The PVC showed the highest steady-state torque. The formulation containing a polymer blend of HDPE and PP showed the highest torque energy. This higher torque energy is explained by the interaction of the incompatible polymeric chains of the two thermoplastic polymers. © 2018 Society of Plastics Engineers.
Carlo Lupi, Guy R. Larocque, Alexander Mosseler, John E. Major, Michel Labrecque, Jean Beaulieu, Andrew M. Gordon, Barb R. Thomas, André Vézina, Hassine Bouafif, Denis Cormier, Derreck Sidders, Annie DesRochers, Richard Krygier, Francine Tremblay. Biomass from young hardwood stands on marginal lands: Allometric equations and sampling methods. 2017. Biomass and Bioenergy 98:172-181
DOI : 10.1016/j.biombioe.2017.01.023
We developed allometric equations for small-diameter woody species growing on mixed forest marginal lands, which are potential sources of biomass for bioenergy. Eleven species of trees and shrubs were sampled from a site located in eastern Canada. Equations derived in this study generally performed better than equations from the literature. Also, fixed-area plots (FAP) and line-intersect sampling (LIS) methods using both random or systematic selection of sampling units were compared to determine which method required the lowest number of measurements to estimate stand biomass for the same precision.
The fixed-area plots method was successfully used to estimate relatively accurately oven-dry biomass per hectare. Results indicated that potentially harvestable woody biomass (oven dry basis) varied between 33-41 and 12–13 t ha?1 for the most and least productive marginal sites respectively. On the most productive site, LIS estimates (between 20 and 42 t ha?1) were usually lower than those obtained using different FAP sampling methods (i.e. systematic or random, small (50 m2) or large (100 m2) plots), but similar on the more open sites (between 10 and 14 t ha?1). Small FAP resulted in a plot without measurements in one case. Moreover, estimates based on small FAP were generally higher, even if not significantly different from larger plot estimates. We therefore suggest using FAP with 100 m2 plots to estimate small-diameter woody biomass on marginal lands with dense vegetation, while LIS, even if promising for open stands, needs further evaluation before recommendation.
Carlo Lupi, Guy R. Larocque, Alexander Mosseler, John E. Major, Michel Labrecque, Jean Beaulieu, Andrew M. Gordon, Barb R. Thomas, André Vézina, Hassine Bouafif, Denis Cormier, Derreck Sidders, Richard Krygier, Annie DesRochers, N. Thevathasan, M. Riopel, B. Ferland-Raymond, Francine Tremblay. Evaluating sampling designs and deriving biomass equations for young plantations of poplar and willow clones. 2015. Biomass and Bioenergy 83:196-205
DOI : 10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.09.019
Hassine Bouafif, Patrick Perré, Alain Cloutier, Ahmed Koubaa. Creep behaviour of HDPE/wood particle composites. 2013. International Journal of Microstructure and Materials Properties 8(3):225-238
DOI : 10.1504/IJMMP.2013.055385
The effect of particle type, size, content and manufacturing process on the creep behaviour of wood particles/High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) composites has been investigated. Short-term creep tests at different temperatures were carried out and modelled using the Bürger's model and the Findley power law. The creep of the composites was found to increase with temperature due to the mobility of the amorphous bulk and tie HDPE molecules. Increased wood particle content generally decreased the creep level. Jack pine composites exhibited the highest creep reduction due to the chemical composition of the fibres surface and the efficiency of adhesion mechanism between fibres and the HDPE. Injection and compression processes led to better creep behaviour than the extrusion process due to differences in the composites microstructures. Particle size did not show important impacts on the creep properties. Findley power law led to better prediction of long time creep behaviour of the composites.
Hassine Bouafif, Patrick Perré, Alain Cloutier, Ahmed Koubaa. Effects of composite processing methods on wood particle development and length distribution: consequences on mechanical properties of wood–thermoplastic composites. 2010. Wood and Fiber Science 42(1):62-70
The relationship between structure and properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) filled with wood particles and processing techniques—injection molding, compression molding, and extrusion— was investigated. Wood particles were hammer-milled, sieved, and compounded into pellets at 35% by weight with HDPE using a twin-screw extruder. Coupling agent (ethylene-maleic anhydride copolymer) was added at 2% by wood filler weight. The pellets were used to produce test samples using the three processing techniques. The sensitivity of jack pine and several other wood particles (eastern white cedar, black spruce, and jack pine bark) to composite processing was analyzed. Bark particles showed higher propensity to generate fines than wood particles, possibly because of a higher thermal sensitivity. The major reduction in mean particle length was found to occur in the compounding process. Extrusion and injection molding contributed to particle length reduction to a lesser extent. Conversely, compression molding did not cause significant damage to wood particles. Stiffness and strength increased linearly with weight-averaged length.
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Hassine Bouafif, Patrick Perré, Ahmed Koubaa, Bernard Riedl, Alain Cloutier. Analysis of Among-Species Variability in Wood Fiber Surface Using DRIFTS
and XPS: Effects on Esterification Efficiency. 2008. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology. 28: 296–315.
DOI : 10.1080/02773810802485139
Variability in the chemical composition of surface properties of various wood
fibers (eastern white cedar, jack pine, black spruce, and bark) was investigated using
diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and X-ray photoelectron
spectroscopy (XPS). Both DRIFTS and XPS showed high variability in fiber
surface composition between species and between fiber types (sapwood, heartwood,
and bark). Fiber surface was modified by esterification reaction using a maleic anhydride
polyethylene (MAPE) treatment. DRIFTS failed to assess surface modification,
whereas XPS results showed that MAPE treatment increased the surface hydrocarbon
concentration of jack pine wood fiber, indicated by a decrease in oxygen–carbon ratio
and an increase in relative intensity of the C1 component in the C1s signal. Lignin
concentration variability on the fiber surface was determined as the major factor that
prevents esterification from taking place.
Ahmed Koubaa, Hassine Bouafif. Utilisation du biochar activé comme support de croissance des micro-organismes capables de dégrader les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAPs) 22e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, complètement virtuel (2020-12-02)
Mayssa Hmaied, Ahmed Koubaa, Hassine Bouafif. Effets des prétraitements de la biomasse forestière résiduelle des conifères sur la productivité et la qualité des huiles essentielles 21e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec. (2019-11-30)
Nesrine Hamza, Ahmed Koubaa, Hassine Bouafif. Activation de biochars à partir de résidus de bois lignocellulosiques 19e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Ste-Germaine-Boulé, Québec. (2017-11-30)
Mayssa Hmaied, Hassine Bouafif, Sara Magdouli, Ahmed Koubaa. Affiche 6
Étude de l’impact du conditionnement et du prétraitement de la biomasse forestière résiduelle sur les produits de transformation : cas des huiles essentielles 19e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Ste-Germaine-Boulé, Québec. (2017-11-30)
Thana Saffar, Hassine Bouafif, Armand Langlois, Ahmed Koubaa. Affiche 9
Utilisation de la lignine pyrolytique dans la fabrication des mousses de polyuréthane rigide 19e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Ste-Germaine-Boulé, Québec. (2017-11-30)
Besma Bouslimi, Ahmed Koubaa, Hassine Bouafif. Caractérisation des propriétés chimiques en utilisant la technologie d’infrarouge : cas du pin gris (Pinus banksiana Lamb) 18e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec. (2016-12-01)
Hassine Bouafif Jack pine taper model analysis in boreal forest of Abitibi-Temiscaming. (50 diapos.) 9e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec. (2007-12-05)