Abderrahmane Ameray, Yves Bergeron, Osvaldo Valeria, Miguel Montoro Girona, Xavier Cavard. Forest Carbon Management: a Review of Silvicultural Practices and Management Strategies Across Boreal, Temperate and Tropical Forests 2021. Current Forestry Reports
DOI : 10.1007/s40725-021-00151-w
Carbon sequestration and storage in forest ecosystems is often promoted as a solution for reducing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. Yet, our understanding is lacking regarding how forest management strategies affect the net removal of greenhouse gases and contribute to climate change mitigation. Here, we present a review of carbon sequestration and stock dynamics, following three strategies that are widely used in boreal, temperate and tropical forests: extensive forest management, intensive forest management and old-growth forest conservation.
Raphaël Chavardes, Fabio Gennaretti, Xavier Cavard, Pierre Grondin, Hubert Morin, Yves Bergeron. Role of Mixed-Species Stands in Attenuating the Vulnerability of Boreal Forests to Climate Change and Insect Epidemics. 2021. Frontiers in Plant Science 12:658880
DOI : 10.3389/fpls.2021.658880
We investigated whether stand species mixture can attenuate the vulnerability of eastern Canada’s boreal forests to climate change and insect epidemics. For this, we focused on two dominant boreal species, black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), in stands dominated by black spruce or trembling aspen (“pure stands”), and mixed stands (M) composed of both species within a 36 km2 study area in the Nord-du-Québec region. For each species in each stand composition type, we tested climate-growth relations and assessed the impacts on growth by recorded insect epidemics of a black spruce defoliator, the spruce budworm (SBW) [Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)], and a trembling aspen defoliator, the forest tent caterpillar (FTC; Malacosoma disstria Hübn.). We implemented linear models in a Bayesian framework to explain baseline and long-term trends in tree growth for each species according to stand composition type and to differentiate the influences of climate and insect epidemics on tree growth. Overall, we found climate vulnerability was lower for black spruce in mixed stands than in pure stands, while trembling aspen was less sensitive to climate than spruce, and aspen did not present differences in responses based on stand mixture. We did not find any reduction of vulnerability for mixed stands to insect epidemics in the host species, but the non-host species in mixed stands could respond positively to epidemics affecting the host species, thus contributing to stabilize ecosystem-scale growth over time. Our findings partially support boreal forest management strategies including stand species mixture to foster forests that are resilient to climate change and insect epidemics.
Yves Bergeron, Xavier Cavard, Marie-Charlotte Nilsson, David A. Wardle, David Paré. Disentangling Effects of Time Since
Fire, Overstory Composition
and Organic Layer Thickness
on Nutrient Availability in Canadian
Boreal Forest. 2019. Ecosystems 22(1)33-48
DOI : 10.1007/s10021-018-0251-3
Wildfire is the primary abiotic disturbance in the boreal forest, and its long-term absence can lead to large changes in ecosystem properties, including the availability and cycling of nutrients. These effects are, however, often confounded with the effects of successional changes in vegetation toward nutrient-conservative species. We studied a system of boreal forested lake islands in eastern Canada, where time since last fire ranged from 50 to 1500 years, and where the relative abundance of the most nutrient-conservative tree species, black spruce, was largely independent of time since last fire. This allowed us to disentangle the effects of time since fire and the dominant vegetation on ecosystem properties, including nutrient stocks and concentrations. Effects of time since fire independent of vegetation composition mostly involved an increase in the thickness of the organic layer and in nitrogen concentration in both soil and leaves. Domination by black spruce had strong negative effects on nutrient concentrations and was associated with a shift toward more fungi and Gram-positive bacteria in the soil microbial community. Path modeling showed that phosphorus concentration was inversely related to organic layer thickness, which was in turn related to both time since fire and black spruce abundance, while nitrogen was more directly related to time since fire and the composition of the overstory. We conclude that discriminating between the effects of vegetation and time since fire is necessary for better understanding and predicting the long-term changes that occur in forest nutrient availability and ecosystem properties.
Brian Brassard, Yves Bergeron, Jérôme Laganière, Xavier Cavard, Han Chen, David Paré. The influence of boreal tree species mixtures on ecosystem carbon storage and fluxes. 2015. For. Ecol. Manage. 354:119-129
DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2015.06.029
Plant species mixtures are often seen as being able to achieve higher productivity and carbon (C) sequestration than their single-species counterparts, but it is unclear whether this is true in natural forests. Here, we investigated whether naturally-regenerated mixtures of common North American boreal tree species were more productive and stored more C than single-species stands. We also examined how closely the different C pools and fluxes were interrelated and whether these relationships varied with species composition. Single- and mixed-species stands of trembling aspen, black spruce and jack pine on mesic sites were selected in two regions of the Canadian boreal forest to assess aboveground and belowground productivity and C storage. Although previous studies conducted in these stands found synergistic effects of tree species mixtures on specific C pools and fluxes, such as higher organic layer C stocks and higher fine root productivity in some mixtures, no effects were detected on combined C pools or fluxes at the ecosystem level in the current study. Aspen abundance was linked with higher aboveground tree productivity, higher aboveground living biomass and higher soil heterotrophic respiration, indicating that aspen acts as a key driver of ecosystem C storage and fluxes in these natural forest ecosystems, more so than species richness. However, our results do not rule out the possibility of increased productivity and C storage in mixed stands under environmental conditions or stand developmental stages that are different from the ones studied here. Furthermore, when the entire forest ecosystem is considered (not only tree parts), synergistic effects of tree species mixtures may be more difficult to observe because the beneficial effect of species mixing on one specific C pool may be counterbalanced by a negative effect on another pool.
Jean-François Boucher, Yves Bergeron, Xavier Cavard. Vegetation and topography interact with weather to drive the spatial distribution of wildfires in the eastern boreal forest of Canada. 2015. International Journal of Wildland Fire 24(3):391-406
DOI : 10.1071/WF13128
It is crucial to better understand and predict how burnt areas in the boreal forest will evolve under a changing climate and landscape. The objective of the present study was to predict burnt areas at several spatial and temporal scales in the Quebec continuous boreal forest and to compare the influence of weather, vegetation and topographic variables by including them and their interactions in logistic regressions. At the largest spatial scale (350 km2), the best model explained 66% of the data variability and was able to predict burnt areas with reasonable accuracy for 11 years (r = 0.48). Weather and vegetation or topographic variables had an equivalent importance, though no single vegetation or topographic variable was mandatory to the model performance. Interactions between weather and non-weather variables largely improved the model, particularly when several weather indices were used, as the sign of the interaction with a non-weather variable could differ between weather indices. Vegetation and topography are therefore important predictors of fire susceptibility, but risk factors may vary between wind- and drought-driven fire weather. Including at least some vegetation and topographic variables in statistical models linking burnt areas to weather data can greatly improve their predictive power.
Samuel B. St. Clair, Yves Bergeron, Xavier Cavard. The role of facilitation and competition in the development and resilience of aspen forests. 2013. For. Ecol. Manage. 299:91-99
DOI : 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.02.026
Underlying the development and function of aspen forest communities are interactions between aspen and a broad suite of plant species. These plant–plant interactions can be facilitative or antagonistic in nature and their influence varies depending on multiple environmental factors that are changing with human activity. The purpose of this synthesis paper is to identify the patterns, mechanisms and consequences of facilitation and competition in aspen communities and how they vary based on environmental conditions and different aspen forest types.
Across its expansive range, aspen commonly associate with conifers to form mixed forests. There is increasing evidence that facilitation in early stand development alters competitive interactions between aspen and conifers in later stages of development. However, the influences of facilitation and competition vary depending on conifer species and aspen forest type. In drier, montane aspen forests of the western US, shade and higher moisture content at the base of aspen trees facilitate the germination and survival of young fir seedlings. This facilitation effect increases the proximity of aspen and fir which over time creates competitive interactions that favor conifer dominance. In the more mesic conditions of eastern Canada, aspen also promotes fir establishment but the facilitation effect occurs at the stand level and is most likely driven by increased light penetration and more optimal edaphic conditions rather than by mitigating moisture limitations. In the western and central boreal forest, successional transitions are primarily driven by competitive effects in which short fire cycles and competitive inhibition of spruce favors aspen dominance.
Positive and antagonistic interactions between aspen and associated plant species are influenced by environmental conditions that fluctuate according to nature processes and human perturbations. In this review we discuss the impact that plant invasions, global change factors, fire regimes and herbivory have on plant–plant interactions in aspen forest and how they modify successional outcomes. The literature suggests that aspen’s competitive ability is strongly influenced by rising CO2, temperatures, drought and ozone. Conditions resulting in longer fire cycles will tend to promote losses in aspen cover through competitive exclusion through conifer expansion. Finally, competition alters aspen susceptibility to herbivory which is a major threat to aspen resilience in some parts of its range. Identifying the environmental conditions that create the proper balance between facilitative and competitive interactions is paramount in formulating management approaches that promote resilient aspen forests.
Yves Bergeron, Brian Brassard, Jérôme Laganière, David Paré, Han Chen, Xavier Cavard. Stability of Soil Carbon Stocks Varies with Forest Composition in the Canadian Boreal Biome. 2013. Ecosystems
DOI : 10.1007/s10021-013-9658-z
Changes in forest composition as a result of forest management, natural disturbances, and climate change may affect the accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC). We examined the influence of common boreal tree species (trembling aspen, black spruce, and jack pine), either in pure stands or in conifer-broadleaf mixtures, on the amount, distribution, and quality of SOC in two regions of the Canadian boreal biome. Long-term laboratory incubations were used to assess SOC quality by quantifying proportions of fast carbon (C) (that is, proportion of total C released during the first 100 days of incubation) and active C (that is, modeled proportion of total C that can be potentially released). Total amounts of SOC did not differ between stand types, but the effects of stand type on SOC stocks and quality differed with soil depth. Among stand types, aspen stands had the greatest relative proportion of total SOC in deeper mineral layers and the lowest amount of active C in the organic layer. For these reasons, the SOC stock that developed under aspen was more stable than in the other stand types. Although black spruce stands allowed a greater accumulation of SOC in surface layers, these stocks, however, might become more vulnerable to extra losses if environmental conditions are to become more favorable to decomposition in the future. Our work highlights that boreal forest composition influences the stability of SOC stocks and how climate change could alter this large C pool.
Cungen Chen, Brian Brassard, Peter B. Reich, Yves Bergeron, Yuan Zhiyou, Jérôme Laganière, David Paré, Xavier Cavard. Tree species diversity increases fine root productivity through increased soil volume filling. 2013. Journal of Ecology 101(1):210-219
DOI : 10.1111/1365-2745.12023
- Although fine roots (< 2 mm in diameter) account for a major share of the production of terrestrial ecosystems, diversity effects on fine root productivity and their mechanisms remain unclear.
- We hypothesized that: (i) fine root productivity increases with tree species diversity, (ii) higher fine root productivity is a result of greater soil volume filling due to species-specific patterns of root placement and proliferation, and (iii) differences in fine root productivity and soil volume filling associated with tree species diversity are more pronounced in summer when plants are physiologically active and demand for water and nutrients is at its greatest.
- We investigated the effects of tree species diversity on fine root productivity and soil volume filling of boreal forest stands that have grown naturally for 85 years on similar sites.
- Annual fine root production was 19–83% higher in evenly mixed- than single-species-dominated stands, and increased with tree species evenness, but not tree species richness. Fine root biomass was higher in evenly mixed- than single-species-dominated stands in summer months, but not in spring or fall. Higher fine root productivity in evenly mixed- than single-species-dominated stands was realized by filling more soil volume horizontally and vertically in the forest floor in the mixtures of deep- and shallow-rooted species vs. the deeper mineral soil in the mixtures of deep-rooted species.
- Synthesis. Our results provide some of the first direct evidence for below-ground species complementarity in heterogeneous natural forests, by demonstrating that tree species evenness increases fine root productivity by filling/exploiting the soil environment more completely in space and time, driven by differences in the inherent rooting traits of the component species and variations of root growth within species.
Yves Bergeron, Ellen MacDonald, Xavier Cavard, Han Chen. Importance of mixedwoods for biodiversity conservation: Evidence for understory plants, songbirds, soil fauna, and ectomycorrhizae in northern forests. 2011. Environ. Rev. 19(NA):142-161
DOI : 10.1139/a11-004
Les préoccupations environnementales croissantes en foresterie ont provoqué un intérêt pour l’aménagement mixte comme une stratégie possible dans un contexte d’aménagement forestier durable. Cette revue de littérature se concentre sur les effets des peuplements mixtes sur la biodiversité, incluant les plantes de sous-bois, la faune aviaire, la faune du sol, et les ectomycorrhizes (ECM). Elle examine la diversité et la composition spécifiques à l’échelle des peuplements mais focalise particulièrement sur l’échelle du paysage (diversité gamma) en recherchant la présence d’espèces indicatrices des peuplements mixtes. Les principales conclusions sont les suivantes : (i) L’existence de différentes espèces d’arbres dans la canopée est associée avec une plus grande diversité de microhabitats, permettant l’addition des espèces de plantes de sous-bois associées à chacune des espèces de la canopée. Il n’y a toutefois que peu d’indications quant à l’existence d’espèces de plantes de sous-bois associées exclusivement aux peuplements mixtes. (ii) Certaines espèces d’oiseaux exigent ou préfèrent la présence de différentes espèces d’arbres dans un paysage ou un peuplement. Les peuplements ou paysages forestiers mixtes sont donc critiques pour la conservation de telles espèces. (iii) Quelques études ont montré un effet positif des peuplements ou litières mélangés sur certains groupes d’organismes du sol, mais la forte variabilité de ces résultats rend toute conclusion hasardeuse. (iv) Certains taxa d’ECM sont associés à des hôtes multiples, et pourraient donc bénéficier de la disponibilité de plusieurs hôtes dans les peuplements mixtes. Plusieurs études ont confirmé la plus grande abondance de ces taxa à hôtes multiples dans les peuplements mixtes.
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Yves Bergeron, Xavier Cavard, Han Chen, David Paré. Effect of forest canopy composition on soil nutrients and dynamics of the understorey: Mixed canopies serve neither vascular nor bryophyte strata. 2011. J. Veg. Sci. 22(6):1105-1119
DOI : 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2011.01311.x
Question: The effect of overstorey composition on above?ground dynamics of understorey vegetation is poorly understood. This study examines the understorey biomass, production and turnover rates of vascular and non?vascular plants along a conifer–broadleaf gradient of resource availability and heterogeneity.
Location: Canadian boreal forests of northwest Quebec and Ontario.
Methods: We sampled mature stands containing various proportions of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP), trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.). Above?ground biomass of the understorey vegetation was assessed through harvesting; annual growth rates were calculated as the differences between biomass in 2007 and 2008, as estimated by allometric relationships, and turnover rates were estimated as net primary production divided by the biomass in 2007.
Results: Higher aspen presence, linked to greater nutrient availability in the forest floor, was generally associated with higher vascular biomass and production in the understorey. This effect was less pronounced in sites of high intrinsic fertility. In contrast, bryophyte biomass was positively associated with conifer abundance, particularly in wet sites of the Quebec study area. Non?linear responses resulted in total understorey biomass being lower under mixed canopies than under pure aspen or pure conifer canopies. Turnover rates did not differ with overstorey composition.
Conclusions: While resource availability is a main driver of understorey productivity, resources as drivers appear to differ with differences in understorey strata components, i.e. vascular versus non?vascular plants. Resource heterogeneity induced by a mixed canopy had overall negative effects on understorey above?ground productivity, as this productivity seemed to rely on species adapted to the specific conditions induced by a pure canopy.
Abderrahmane Ameray, Yves Bergeron, Xavier Cavard. Efficacité des stratégies d'aménagement forestier pour atténuer et s’adapter aux changements climatiques au Québec 24e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec. (2022-11-22)
Miray Andrianirinarimanana, Nelson Thiffault, Jean-François Boucher, Xavier Cavard. Comment les traitements sylvicoles affectent-ils les stocks de carbone des peuplements d'épinettes noires ? 24e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec. (2022-11-22)
Clémence Boivin, Nicole J. Fenton, Xavier Cavard, Mebarek Lamara. Est-ce possible de favoriser à la fois la biodiversité et la séquestration du carbone ? 24e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec. (2022-11-22)
Maya Disraëli Ratsimandresiarivo, Annie DesRochers, Xavier Cavard. Comment les traitements sylvicoles affectent-ils le carbone organique du sol dans les peuplements d’épinettes noires? 24e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec. (2022-11-22)
Mialintsoa Aroniaina Randriamananjara, Nicole J. Fenton, Xavier Cavard, Mélanie Jean, Annie DesRochers. Diversité végétale dans les plantations de peupliers hybrides en plantation pure et mixte 24e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec. (2022-11-22)
Mialintsoa Aroniaina Randriamananjara, Nicole J. Fenton, Xavier Cavard, Mélanie Jean, Annie DesRochers. Diversité végétale et fonctionnelle dans les plantations mixtes de peupliers hybrides et les monocultures 15e colloque annuel du CEF, Université de Sherbrooke, Québec (2022-09-29)
Axelle Favro , Xavier Cavard, Fabio Gennaretti, Jérôme Laganière. Effets des traitements sylvicoles sur les flux de carbone des épinettes noires (Picea Mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) en réponse à la disponibilité en eau. 15e colloque annuel du CEF, Université de Sherbrooke, Québec (2022-09-28)
Clémence Boivin, Xavier Cavard, Nicole J. Fenton, Mebarek Lamara. Foresterie multifonctionnelle : est-il possible de favoriser à la fois la biodiversité et la séquestration du carbone ? 15e colloque annuel du CEF, Université de Sherbrooke, Québec (2022-09-28)
Miray Andrianirinarimanana, Xavier Cavard, Jean-François Boucher, Nelson Thiffault. Comment les traitements sylvicoles affectent les stocks de carbone aérien des pessières le long d'un gradient longitudinal ? 15e colloque annuel du CEF, Université de Sherbrooke, Québec (2022-09-28)
Clémence Boivin, Nicole J. Fenton, Xavier Cavard, Mebarek Lamara. Foresterie multifonctionnelle : est-il possible de favoriser à la fois la biodiversité et la séquestration du carbone ? Conférence annuelle de l’Association Botanique Canadienne. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec. (2022-06-06)
Mialintsoa Aroniaina Randriamananjara, Annie DesRochers, Nicole J. Fenton, Xavier Cavard, Mélanie Jean. Impact de l'établissement des plantations à croissance rapide utilisant des espèces exotiques sur la biodiversité de la végétation de sous-bois Conférence annuelle de l’Association Botanique Canadienne. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec. (2022-06-06)
Abderrahmane Ameray, Xavier Cavard. Un modèle comme Landis-II peut-il nous aider à comprendre comment les changements climatiques et l’aménagement forestier peuvent conjointement modifier la dynamique du carbone en forêt boréale? Les Rendez-vous de la connaissance en aménagement forestier durable MFFP - Séquestration du carbone (2021-04-20)
Xavier Cavard, Abderrahmane Ameray, Sylvie Tremblay, Évelyne Thiffault. Rendez-vous de la connaissance en aménagement forestier durable - Séquestration du carbone Les Rendez-vous de la connaissance en aménagement forestier durable (2021-04-20)
Raphaël Chavardes, Fabio Gennaretti, Xavier Cavard, Pierre Grondin, Lorena Balducci, Hubert Morin, Alain Leduc, Ari Kainelainen, Danielle Charron, T. Châtellier, Yves Bergeron. Le mélange des espèces dans le peuplement peut-il atténuer la vulnérabilité des forêts boréales aux changements climatiques et aux épidémies d’insectes ? 22e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, complètement virtuel (2020-12-02)
Xavier Cavard Présentation de la chaire UQAT-MFFP en gestion du carbone forestier (GCaF) 21e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec. (2019-11-30)
Abderrahmane Ameray, Yves Bergeron, Xavier Cavard. Modélisation des réponses du bilan de carbone de la forêt boréale aux changements climatiques et aux perturbations naturelles et anthropiques 21e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec. (2019-11-30)
Xavier Cavard L'âge après feu est-il en soi un facteur de déclin ? Cas des îles du lac Duparquet. Midi-foresterie (2016-02-23)
Xavier Cavard Peut-on utiliser l'aménagement mixte pour maximiser la séquestration du carbone en forêt boréale de l'Est Canadien? 13ème atelier annuel de la Chaire industrielle CRSNG-UQAT-UQAM en aménagement forestier durable : Le carbone en zone boréale à l'heure des bilans (2012-04-25)
Xavier Cavard Interactions entre les essences forestières de la forêt boréale de l’Est du Canada, et conséquences pour la séquestration du carbone dans les peuplements mixtes. Soutenance thèse (2010-11-25)
Xavier Cavard Productivité du mélange épinette noire – peuplier faux-tremble 11e colloque de la Chaire AFD. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec. (2009-12-09)